What Wikipedia Says about Batman

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Batman

Batman (real name Bruce Wayne), a superhero clothed in a bat-motif, is the protagonist of the series and costumed protector of Gotham City. He is driven by guilt and revenge following the murder of his parents as a child. Batman spent his youth training in a plethora of fighting styles including boxing under Wildcat and Chinese martial arts under Wu Fei. During his training in the latter Batman met future ally Bronze Tiger and future foes Fox, Vulture, and Shark.
Batman is perhaps best known for the explicit emphasis he places on mental training and intelligence. He couples this with his parents' vast fortune, allowing him to create many advanced gadgets and vehicles. Though usually grim and serious, he is willing to work with others in order to foil villains. His close friends include Green Arrow, Blue Beetle, Aquaman, Plastic Man and Red Tornado. When undercover, he uses his Matches Malone identity.
The episode "Deep Cover for Batman!" reveals that Batman has an his evil counterpart in an alternate dimension. Going by the name Owlman, Batman's doppelgänger has succeeded in capturing the heroes of his world and in becoming the de facto ruler - or at least co-ruler alongside other villains - as a result. In the following episode "Game Over for Owlman!", Batman travels to other alternate Earths and recruits other versions of himself, including a vampire Batman (inspired by the comics story Batman & Dracula: Red Rain), a pirate-themed Batman, Captain Leatherwing, (based on Detective Comics Annual #7), a big-headed psychic Batman, a super-strong "Hulk" Batman (inspired by The Brave and the Bold #68 (1966)), a cowboy version of Batman (inspired by the Justice Riders comics miniseries), and a futuristic Batman. See Alternate versions of Batman for more details.



Batman is a fictional character created by the artist Bob Kane and writer Bill Finger. A comic book superhero, Batman first appeared in Detective Comics #27 in May 1939, and since then has appeared in many of DC Comics’ publications. Originally referred to as "the Bat-Man" and still referred to at times as "the Batman", he is additionally known as "the Caped Crusader", "the Dark Knight", and " the World's Greatest Detective".

A hoodie (or hoody),[1] is a sweatshirt with a hood. The characteristic design includes large frontal pockets, a hood, and (usually) a drawstring to adjust the hood opening.



History

The history of the specific garment began in the 1930s, but historical precedent dates the style and form of the hoodie back to the Middle Ages. The formal wear for Catholic monks included a cowl, a long, decorative hood worn in addition to the standard tunic or robes.[2] The modern clothing style was first produced by Champion in the 1930s for laborers in the frozen warehouses of New York.[3] Its popularity spread as sportswear designers such as Claire McCardell developed entire collections based around the clothing.[citation needed]
The hoodie took off in the 1970s as several factors contributed to its success. Hip hop culture developed in New York City around this time, and the hoodie's element of instant anonymity, provided by the accessible hood, appealed to those with criminal intent.[3] High fashion also contributed during this era, as Norma Kamali and other high-profile designers embraced and glamorized the new clothing.[2] Most critical to the hoodie's popularity during this time was its iconic appearance in the blockbuster Rocky film. By the 1990s, the hoodie had evolved into a symbol of isolation, a statement of academic spirit, and several fashion collections.[citation needed] The association with chavs/neds in the UK developed around this time, as their popularity rose with that specific demographic. Young men, often skateboarders or surfers, sported the hoodie and spread the trend across the western United States, most significantly in California.[citation needed] The rise of hoodies with university logos began around this time.[citation needed] Tommy Hilfiger, Giorgio Armani, and Ralph Lauren, for example, used the hoodie as the primary component for many of their collections in the 1990s.[2][3] In May 2005, at a time of recent publicity surrounding "Hoodies" in shopping centres, an infant travel wrap called the "Baby Hoodie" was launched by Morrck,[4] a small UK company run by 'Mum-preneurs'.[5]
In Saskatchewan, the hoodie is often known as a "bunny hug" or "bunnyhug".[6][7]

Perception

United States

Hoodies are chosen by many people in casual settings for warmth and protection against wind. Many American colleges and universities create their own hoodies with their logos on them. Hoodies are a common dress for outside exercises such as jogging and running. Hoodies are generally regarded as casual dress and are often worn over a T-shirt. In the United States as well as Canada, hoodies are a near-ubiquitous fashion item for teenagers.

[edit] United Kingdom

In the UK, hoodies have been the subject of much criticism; some shoplifters have used the hood to conceal their identities from CCTV cameras in shopping centres.[8] Particularly when worn with a baseball cap, the hoodie has become a trademark of "chavs", or Neds.

"No hoodies" sign outside a pub in South London
Angela McRobbie, professor of communications at Goldsmiths College in the UK, says the appeal of the hoodie is because of its promise of anonymity, mystery and anxiety. "The point of origin is obviously black American hip-hop culture, now thoroughly mainstream and a key part of the global economy. Leisure and sportswear adopted for everyday wear suggests a distance from the world of office suit or school uniform. Rap culture celebrates defiance, as it narrates the experience of social exclusion. Musically and stylistically, it projects menace and danger as well as anger and rage. The hooded top is one in a long line of garments chosen by young people, usually boys, to which are ascribed meanings suggesting that they are 'up to no good'. In the past, such appropriation was usually restricted to membership of specific youth cultures - leather jackets, bondage trousers - but nowadays it is the norm among young people to flag up their music and cultural preferences in this way, hence the adoption of the hoodie by boys across the boundaries of age, ethnicity and class."[9]
In May 2005, Bluewater shopping centre in Kent caused outrage by launching a code of conduct which bans its shoppers from sporting hoodies or baseball caps, although the garments remain on sale. John Prescott welcomed the move, stating that he had felt threatened by the presence of hooded teenagers at a motorway service station.[9] Then-Prime Minister Tony Blair openly supported this stance and vowed to clamp down on the anti-social behaviour with which hoodie wearers are sometimes associated. London-based rapper Lady Sovereign published a single titled "Hoodie" in protest as part of a "Save the Hoodie" campaign.[10]
In February 2006, a 58-year-old teacher who was wearing a hooded top was asked to remove it when entering a Tesco store in Swindon. According to the teacher, she was wearing the hood because "my hair's a mess". The shop apologized and said it was taking action to "make sure this doesn't happen again."[11]
In 2005, Coombeshead College in the south-west of England, allowed the hoodie to become part of the boys school uniform, but the hood could be put up only when it rained. The principal, Richard Haigh, stated that the move would help to calm some of what he called the "hysteria" surrounding the garment.[12]
In July 2006, David Cameron, leader of the Conservative Party, made a speech suggesting that the hoodie was worn more for defensive than offensive purposes.[13] The speech was referred to as "hug a hoodie" by the Labour Party.[14][15]
Severe cold in the winter of 2009–2010 in the United Kingdom, with air temperatures sometimes in the minus-teens Celsius, induced many people to wear hoodies who would not normally wear them.[citation needed]



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